The U.S. / American Automobile Industry in World War Two / WWII
An American Auto Industry Heritage Tribute
By David D Jackson

Overview
The U.S. Auto Industry at the Normandy Invasion, June 6, 1944
The U.S. Auto Industry and the B-29 Bomber   U.S. Auto Industry Army-Navy "E" Award Winners   The Complete listing of All Army-Navy "E" Award Winners   Sherman Tanks of the American Auto Industry
    Automobile Manufacturers:  American Bantam Car Company   Checker   Chrysler   Crosley   Ford   General Motors   Graham-Paige   Hudson
   Nash-Kelvinator   Packard      Studebaker    Willys-Overland
General Motors Divisions
(Undergoing development) Aeroproducts   Brown-Lipe-Chapin   Buick   Cadillac   Chevrolet   Cleveland Diesel   Delco Appliance   Delco Products   Delco Radio   Delco-Remy   Detroit Diesel   Detroit Transmission   Electro-Motive   Fisher Body   Frigidaire   GM Proving Grounds   GM of Canada   Guide Lamp   Harrison Radiator   Hyatt Bearings   Inland   Moraine Products   New Departure   Oldsmobile   Packard Electric   Pontiac   Saginaw Malleable Iron   Southern California Division   Rochester Products   United Motors Service
Truck Manufacturers:   Autocar  Diamond T   International Harvester    Mack Truck
   Pacific Car and Foundry  Reo Motor Car Company   Ward LaFrance Truck Corporation   White Motor Company    
Updates and Additions  
Links

 

International Harvester in World War Two / WWII
Chicago, IL
1902- 1985 (For combined farm implement and truck operations.)
Navistar International continues to make what used to be IH trucks today.

This page updated 11-28-2016.

 International Harvester started producing motor vehicles with the "Auto Buggy" in 1907, and built the first 100 at the McCormick Works in Chicago, IL, before moving production to Akron, OH in 1908.  Production moved once again in 1922 to Springfield, OH with a second plant added in Fort Wayne, IN a year later.  The 13,622 Half Tracks were built at the Springfield facility from October 1942 through January 1944.  Most of the trucks built by International were used by the Navy or Marine Corps, or became part of the Lend-Lease program.  


This is a 1909 International Harvester Auto Wagon, its first truck.  3,441 were built in Akron, OH.  It came with a 16 hp engine.  Author's photo at the National Auto and Truck Museum in Auburn, IN.

International Harvester won nineteen Army-Navy "E" Awards during WWII.


 

International Harvester Army-Navy "E" Awards during World War Two

Plant Location Product Total Number of "E" Awards
McCormick Works Chicago, IL Mark XIII Aerial Torpedoes 2
Tractor Works Chicago, IL Farm Tractors and Military Bulldozers 5
West Pullman Works Chicago, IL 37mm cannon shells, Bellevue springs for artillery recoil mechanisms 2
Wisconsin Steel Works Chicago, IL Steel 3
Indianapolis Works Indianapolis, IN Truck engines 3
St Paul Works St. Paul, MN 57mm anti-tank guns 4
Total     19

International Harvester World War Two / WWII Production Numbers / Statistics: 
Vehicles - (1,123) M-1-4 1/2 Ton 4x4 Utility Trucks, (10,450) M-2-4 One Ton 4x4 Trucks, (unknown small amount) M-3-6 1&1/2 Ton 4x4 Trucks, (36,320 approximate) M-5-6  2&1/2 Ton 6x6 Cargo Trucks, (4,460) H542-9 M425/ H542-11 M426 Five Ton 4x2 tractors, (5,290) M5 13 Ton High Speed Tractors (Artillery Prime Movers), and (13,622) M4 Half Tracks. 

Crawlers/Tractors:  (18,675) TD-9, (10,153) TD-14, (8,800)TD-18.  These are total production numbers from 1941-1945.  Production included both military and civilian construction needs for WWII.

Armament- 37mm cannon shells, Bellevue springs for artillery recoil mechanisms, 57mm anti-tank guns, 75mm cannon shells, 105mm shell casings, Thunderbolt 20mm Oerlikon Quad gun mounts, (7) M7 tanks. (Another 20 unfinished were still on the production lines.)  

Other:  (830) M22 tank transmissions and differentials, C-46 Aircraft Engine Cowlings, Aircraft Cannons, Airfield Command Trucks, Armored Scout Car Hulls, Gun Loaders,  Blood Bank Refrigerators, 155 mm High Speed Gun Carriages, USMC Invasion Ice Chests.

International Harvester ranked 33rd in dollar value of WWII production contracts.


One of seven M7 tanks produced by IH during WWII.

International Harvester Products during World War Two

Plant Location Product Comments
McCormick Works Chicago, IL Mark XIII Aerial Torpedoes  
Tractor Works Chicago, IL Farm Tractors and Military Bulldozers  
West Pullman Works Chicago, IL 37mm cannon shells  
Wisconsin Steel Works Chicago, IL Steel  
Indianapolis Works / Truck Engine Works Indianapolis, IN Truck engines  
Indianapolis Branch House Indianapolis, IN  M22 tank transmissions and differential assemblies This was the sales branch office located at 230 South Capital Ave.   Temporary space was found in the building for the assembly of the M22 tank transmissions and differential assemblies.
Fort Wayne Works Fort Wayne, IN Trucks  
Bettendorf Tank Arsenal Bettendorf, IA M7 tanks, M5, Crawlers This tank arsenal was built to produce 3,000 M7 tanks.  The contract was cancelled in 1943 after only 7 M7s had been completed.  Another 20 were partially built on the assembly line..
St Paul Works St. Paul, MN 57mm anti-tank guns  
New Brighton Works, New Brighton, MN 105mm shell casings  
Springfield Works Springfield, OH M5, M9 half tracks, trucks  
Chatham Works Chatham, ONT Trucks  
Milwaukee Works Milwaukee, WI 75mm cannon shells, tracked crawlers, stationary engines  
Auburn (Osborne)  Works Auburn, NY C-46 Engine cowlings  

 

International-Harvester Half Track Production
Year Number built Type Comments
1942-1943 (4,625) M5 Similar to the M3 built by Autocar, Diamond T and White.  Due to differences International units did not see combat with US combat forces. Some were used in state side training but the majority were supplied to Allied Forces under Lend-Lease.
1943-1944 (2,959) M5A1 Similar to the M3A1 built by Autocar, Diamond T and White.  Due to differences International units did not see combat with US combat forces. Some were used in state side training but the majority were supplied to Allied Forces under Lend-Lease.
1943 (2,026) M9 Similar to the M2 built by Autocar, Diamond T and White.  Due to differences International units did not see combat with US combat forces. Some were used in state side training but the majority were supplied to Allied Forces under Lend-Lease.
1943 (1,407) M9A1 Similar to the M2A1 built by Autocar, Diamond T and White.  Due to differences International units did not see combat with US combat forces. Some were used in state side training but the majority were supplied to Allied Forces under Lend-Lease.
1942-1943 (1,605) M14 Similar to the M13 built by Autocar, Diamond T and White.  Due to differences International units did not see combat with US combat forces.  All went to the British Army.
1943-1944 (1,000) M17 Similar to the M16 built by Autocar, Diamond T and White.  Due to differences International units did not see combat with US combat forces.  All went to the Soviet Union.
Total 13,622    


 


The business end of a Mark XIII aerial torpedo.  The Mark XIII was also used by PT boats, but would not have the ring around the propellers.  International Harvester produced the Mark XIII along with Pontiac Motor Division of General Motors, The Naval Torpedo Station at Newport, RI, and Ameritorp Corporation.   Author's photo from the Air Force Museum.


 This was one of the most complicated and difficult weapons of WWII to build, containing 5,222 individual parts and 1,225 assemblies.  Author's photo from the Air Force Museum.


This warhead section of the torpedo would have the detonator and 600 pounds of Torpex explosive.  This was 1.5 times more powerful than TNT.  Author's photo from the USS Silversides Museum in Muskegon, MI. 


This area would contain the alcohol fuel and compressed air to power the steam turbine.  Author's photo.


Author's photo.


At the rear of the Mark XIII is the steam turbine.  Author's photo.


Author's photo.


The International Harvester M-1-4 1/2 ton 4x4 trucks were used extensively by the US Navy and Marine Corps.  From the collection at the National Military Historical Center, Auburn, IN.  Author's Photo.


Since only 1,123 M-1-4 trucks were built, this example is very rare .  The Navy took 232 as cargo trucks and 891 as ambulances.  Author's Photo.


This International Harvester M5 high speed tractor is from the collection at the National Military Historical Center, Auburn, IN.  Author's Photo.


Author's Photo.


The Indianapolis Works built the transmission and differential for the 830 M22 light tank built by Marmon-Herrington in Indianapolis, IN.  The transmission and differential were located in the front of the tank.  Author's photo taken at 2015 Rockford, IL military show.


An International Harvester 20mm Oerlikon Quad Mount on the USS West Virginia.  These IH built Quad mounts were also experimentally installed on the USS Arkansas, USS Colorado, USS Maryland, USS Washington, and USS Massachusetts.  These quad mounts were known as Thunderbolts, and were designed to increase the anti-aircraft firepower on the ships.  After testing, the Navy decided to not install any more, as they required power to operate.  The manually operated 20mm cannons could still operate when electrical power was lost during battle.


This is a quarter scale engineering model of the International Harvester M4 Half Track that was built at Springfield, OH during World War Two.  This model is on display at the at the National Auto and Truck Museum in Auburn, IN.  Author's Photo.


International Harvester built engine cowlings for the Curtiss C-46 Commando.  Author's photo.


Here are four International Harvester 4x2 M425/M426 tractors with ten ton trailers in Cherbourg, France in July 1944.


Here is an M-2-4-233 one ton 4X4 truck seen at the 2014 MVPA National Convention in Louisville, KY.  This particular unit was delivered to the USMC on 1-11-1943.  Author's photo added 7-28-2014.


This is one of 10,450 built for the Navy and USMC during WWII.  Author's photo added 7-28-2014.


Author's photo added 7-28-2014.


Author's photo added 7-28-2014.


Author's photo added 7-28-2014.


An International M-2-4 undergoes testing in the winter snow.


 A Marine M-2-4 is on the right; and an International TD-18 tractor on the beach at Okinawa.


Marine M-2-4s at Camp Pendleton, near San Diego, CA.


The International M-2-4 in combat.


This ad provides a listing of all war products International Harvester was making for the war effort as of the date of the ad.  Half Track Military Vehicles, Torpedoes, Artillery Prime Movers (M5s), Automatic Airplane Cannons, Oerlikon Gun Mounts, Military Trucks, Military Tractors, Steel Products for Military Use, Aerodrome Command Trucks, Armored Scout Car Hulls, High Speed 155mm Gun Carriages, Gun Loaders, Airplane Engine Cowling Assemblies, Tank Transmissions, Blood Bank Refrigerators, Shells, Adapter Boosters, Tractors, Marine Corps Invasion Ice Chests.


What a beautiful and classic looking truck!  This is a 1947 International Harvester dump truck, which displays the styling of its trucks looked like right after the Second World War.   Author's photo at the National Auto and Truck Museum in Auburn, IN.

 

 

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